Information gaps should be assessed, and, if needed, education should be offered to people with opioid use disorder on how to reduce the risk of the following:
- Acquiring HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and other pathogens
- Drug poisoning
- Soft-tissue injuries
- Other harms associated with drug consumption
Safe supplies should be offered for the use of opioids and other substances, including the following: glass stems, screens, mouthpieces, push sticks, foil, meth pipes, needles and syringes, cookers, filters, ascorbic acid, sterile water, alcohol swabs, tourniquets, safe disposal containers, and condoms.
Infectious disease testing
The need for testing for infections should be assessed and, when appropriate, should be offered for HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, sexually transmitted infections, and tuberculosis.
The need for vaccinations should be assessed, and, when appropriate, vaccinations should be offered. Vaccinations to consider include those for diphtheria, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, pneumococcal pneumonia, and tetanus.
Assess people for the need for referrals for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C treatment, other substance use concerns, and housing services.
Supervised consumption services
Supervised consumption services are spaces designated exempt from the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. In these spaces, people can consume illicit drugs in a safe, supportive, hygienic environment under the supervision of staff who can intervene in the event of an overdose or other adverse event. Staff can also offer assessment and education and encourage engagement with or provide referrals to other health or treatment services.